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    • Aquaculture and Geothermal Heat Pump Systems

    • Aquaculture; heat pump; geothermal; closed loop; open loop; GHP; covered; uncovered; life cycle; economic analysis
    • The objective of this study is to examine the feasibility of aquaculture tank heating with geothermal heat pump (GHP) systems. Both closed- and open-loop GHP systems are examined for heating uncovered and greenhouse-covered tanks at three locations...
    • Fish Rearing Ponds Cascaded from Binary Power Generation

    • Cascade use; geothermal; direct use; low temperature; effluent; aquaculture; ponds; prawns; trout; mosquito fish
    • This article presents result of an investigation into heating fish ponds using geothermal effluent from a binary power generation plant. The investigation was the result of an inquiry to the Geo-Heat Center and is based on a particular...
    • "Gone Fishing" Aquaculture Project Klamath Falls, Oregon

    • Geothermal energy; low temperature; direct use; Klamath Falls, OR; Oregon; ponds; tropical fish; cichlids; Lake Malawi; case study
    • The “Gone Fishing” aquaculture project is located about 10 miles south of Klamath Falls, Oregon, near Merrill in the Lower Klamath Valley adjacent to the Klamath Hills. The original ponds were construct in 1984 and had limited use. The present...
    • Aquaculture Information Package

    • Aquaculture; Tilapia; prawns; catfish; direct-use; geothermal energy; heat loss calculation; permit requirements; water quality; bibliography
    • This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species,...
    • Aquaculture

    • Geothermal energy; low temperature; temperature requirement; evaporation; convection; radiation; conduction; surface cover; thermal mass; flow requirement; aquculture; finned tube; soil heating
    • One of the most common areas of interest in geothermal direct use is that of aquaculture. For those involved with the initial planning of such a project, one of the first questions to be addressed relates to project size. In most geothermal...
    • Use of Geothermal Energy for Aquaculture Purposes

    • Aquaculture; geothermal energy; direct use; prawns; rainbow trout; mosquito fish; ponds; Klamath Falls; OIT;| Oregon; effluent
    • This project, financed by the Pacific Northwest Regional Commission (PNRC), was designed to provide information to evaluate the best methods to use for intensive aquaculture of freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, using geothermal energy. ...
    • A Layman's Guide to Geothermal Aquaculture

    • Low temperature; geothermal energy; freshwater prawn; ponds; stocking; harvesting; hatchery; water quality; aquaculture
    • The following paper is designed as an aid to anyone contemplating a venture into commercially raising giant freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Oregon Institute of Technology has been actively involved in a research program to determine...
    • Balneological Use of Thermal Waters

    • Geothermal energy; direct use; low temperature; hot springs; spa; design; water chemistry; swimming pool; natatorium; heating requirements; Thermopolis; Wyoming; Warm springs; Georgia; Hot Springs; Arkansas; Calistoga; California; Balneology
    • People have used geothermal water and mineral waters for bathing and their health for many thousand of years. Balneology, the practice of using natural mineral water for the treatment and cure of disease, also has a long history. Based on...
    • Geothermal Direct-Use Case Studies

    • Geothermal energy; low temperature; direct use; Susanville, CA; California; district heating; Ouray, CO; Colorado; pool; Klamath Falls, OR; Oregon; aquaculture; Fairmont, MT; Montana; Philip, SD; South Dakota; greenhouse; Newcastle, UT; Utah; Warm...
    • The California Correctional Center is located in Honey Lake Valley of northeastern California, about seven miles east of Susanville in Lassen County. The facility, operated by the state of California, was converted to geothermal heating in...
    • Absorption Refrigeration

    • Refrigeration; lithium bromide; geothermal energy; low temperature; chiller; cost; absorption; ammonia; cooling
    • The absorption cycle is a process by which refrigeration effect is produced through the use of two fluids and some quantity of heat input, rather than electrical input as in the more familiar vapor compression cycle. Both vapor compression and...
    • Regulatory Issues for Direct-Use Geothermal Resource Development in Oregon

    • Low temperature; geothermal energy; drilling; disposal; permitting; water well construction; water rights; surface disposal; Oregon; OR; geothermal resources
    • This document is intended to provide a background on regulatory aspects of drilling, using and disposing of fluids from low-temperature geothermal resources for direct use (non-electric applications) in the state of Oregon. All of the information...
    • Valuation of Geothermal Wells on Real Property

    • Low temperature; geothermal well; large capacity; commercial application; valuation; heating system; well cost; equipment
    • The Geo-Heat Center is often contacted by individual property owners, real estate professionals and others for assistance in the evaluation of geothermal resources in real property transactions. This document is a summary of information on the...
    • Small Geothermal Systems: A Guide for the Do-It-Yourselfer

    • Geothermal energy; low temperature; well pump; building space heating; domestic hot water; DHW; small greenhouse; piping; temperature boosting; direct use
    • Well pumps for larger geothermal applications are normally of the lineshaft, vertical turbine type with the electric motor located on the surface. This type of pump with oil lubrication and adequate allowance for thermal expansion has proven to be...
    • Direct Heat Utilization of Geothermal Resources Worldwide 2005

    • Low temperature; geothermal energy; greenhouse; aquaculture; space heating; district heating; balneology; geothermal heat pump; industrial; agricultural drying; snow melting; lindal diagram; agribusiness; worldwide
    • Direct utilization of geothermal energy consists of various forms for heating and cooling instead of converting the energy for electric power generation. The geothermal resources that can be utilized are in the lower temperature range that are more...
    • Results of Investigations of Failures of Geothermal Direct-Use Well Pumps

    • Well pumps; direct use; geothermal energy; investigations; OIT; Klamath Falls; Oregon Institute of Technology; Calistoga, CA; OR; California; Susanville; Modoc; Wineagle; bearing material; bearing size; temperature; extra lateral; recirculation;...
    • Failures of 13 geothermal direct-use well pumps were investigated and information obtained about an additional 5 pumps that have been in service up to 23 years, but have not failed. Pumps with extra long lateral and variable-speed drives had the...
    • Reference Book on Geothermal Direct Use

    • Low temperature; geothermal energy; heat pump; building; industry; resource base; space heating; district heating; greenhouse; aquaculture; industrial process; resort; spa; Auburn, New York; Portland, Oregon; Elko, Nevada; Buhl, Idaho; Klamath...
    • Enormous potential exists in the United States for geothermal direct use and geothermal heat pumps to make a significant contribution to our national energy needs while offsetting the use of fossil fuels. Geothermal projects reduce gaseous...
    • Direct Utilization Technology, State-of-the-Art

    • Geothermal energy; standard equipment; production well; flow diagram; injection well; heat exchanger; piping; Government Camp; Oregon
    • This paper is intended to convey some ideas as to how a geothermal project develops, and to point out considerations that lead to the selection of the actual hardware. Today’s “state-of-the-art” provides a wide variety of materials and equipment...
    • Geothermal Resource Utilization

    • Low temperature; geothermal energy; direct use; district heating; space heating; agriculture; aquaculture; industrial process; greenhouse; case study; Klamath Falls, Oregon
    • Man has utilized the natural heat of the earth for centuries. Worldwide direct use of geothermal currently amounts to about 7,000 MWt, as compared to 1,500 MWe, now being used for the generation of electricity. Since the early 1970s, dwindling...
    • Geothermal Energy Utilization for the Homeowner

    • Geothermal energy; low temperature; heat exchangers; heat convector; heat load; costs; piping; tax credits; Oregon
    • The purpose of this article is to describe how geothermal energy can be utilized for residential space heating. Background information on the resource introduce this natural source of energy, followed by an explanation of the development of the...


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